The Spiritual Importance of Zakat

A BASIC PILLAR OF ISLAM

Dear Islamic brothers! Zakah is a basic pillar of Islam. The Beloved Rasool has stated, ‘The foundation of Islam is on five acts:

To testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah. Muhammad is His Rasool; to offer Salah;

to pay Zakah; to perform Hajj; to observe the Siyam [fasts] of Ramadan.’

(Sahih Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 14, Hadees 8)

The significance of Zakah can be observed by the following fact: Salah and Zakah have been mentioned together in the Holy Quran 32 times. (Rad-dul-Muhtar, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 202)

Besides this, the fortunate Zakah-giving person receives great blessings and benefits of this world and the Hereafter (which have been mentioned in the later pages of this book).

ZAKAH IS FARD

It is proven from the Holy Quran and Sunnah that Zakah is Fard. Allah has stated in the Holy Quran And keeps Salah (obligatory prayer) established and pay Zakah (obligatory charity).

(Kanz-ul-Iman Part 1, Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayah 43)

Explaining this Ayah in Tafseer Khaza in-ul-‘Irfan, Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Na’eemuddin Muradabadi who passed away in 1367 Hijri) has stated: This Ayah is regarding Salah and Zakah being Fard.

O Beloved, take Zakah from their wealth, by which you may cleanse them and make them pure.

(Kanz-ul-Iman Part 11, Surah At-Taubah, Ayah 103)

Explaining the aforementioned Ayah in Tafseer Khaza in-ul-‘Irfan, Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Na’eemuddin Muradabadi has stated: There are many opinions of the Mufassireen [Quranic exegetes] about the meaning of the word  Sadaqah] that has been mentioned in the Ayah. One opinion states: Sadaqah was not Wajib, which the people who have been mentioned in the previous Ayah had given as expiation. The second opinion is that this ‘Sadaqah’ refers to that Zakah which was Wajib [compulsory] upon them. They repented and tried to pay Zakah, so Allah commanded them to take it. Imam Abu Bakr Raazi Jasaas has given preference to the opinion that ‘Sadaqah’ refers to Zakah.

(Khaazin and Ahkam-ul-Quran)

NARRATIONS REGARDING ZAKAH BEING FARD

Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar has narrated that the Beloved Rasool said: Allah has commanded

me to fight against people until they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is the true Rasool of Allah offer Salah properly; give Zakah; thus, if they do accordingly, their wealth and lives will become protected from me except for the punishment which Islam has made compulsory upon them (on account of any Had The punishment is fixed by Shari’ah for any sin.).

(Sahih Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 20, Hadees 25)

When the Beloved Rasool sent Sayyiduna Mu’aaz towards Yemen, he said: Tell them that Allah has made Zakah Fard in their wealth; it should be taken from the wealthy and given to the Fuqara [the poor].

(Sunan-ut-Tirmizi, vol. 2, pp. 126, Hadees 625)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah has stated that when Rasoolullah left this world and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr became the Khalifah and [the people of] some Arab tribes became Murtads1 (as they denied Zakah to be a Fard act), Sayyiduna ‘Umar ·  said: How will you fight with the people despite the fact that Rasoolullah said, ‘I have been commanded to do Jihad against people until they recite ‘   He, who has agreed to  ‘  has  protected  his  life  and  his  wealth from me except for the right of someone, and [now] his accountability will be carried out in the court of Allah  (I.e. these people say ‘ so how Jihad will be done against them?)

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr So said: By Allah will do Jihad against the person who will differentiate between Salah and Zakah (that he accepts Salah to be Fard but denies Zakah being Fard), and Zakah is the right of wealth. By Allah If they stopped even a  rope  (that is  Wajib upon them to give) which they would give in the blessed era of Rasoolullah, I will fight against them. Sayyiduna ‘Umar has said: By Allah, I saw that Allah has opened the chest of Siddeeq (i.e. he perceived it through Divine guidance). At that time, I also realized that it is Haq [the truth].

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 1, pp. 472-473, Hadees 1399, 1400)

Explaining the aforementioned Hadees, Mufti Muhammad

Amjad ‘Ali Azami · (who passed away in 1367 Hijri) Religious apostates have stated: From this Hadees, we came to know that only reciting the Kalimah is not enough for Islam unless a person agrees to all Zaruriyat-e-Deen1. The reason why Ameer-ul- Mu`mineen Farooq-e-A’zam · discussed it is that he was previously unaware that those people have denied Zakah to be a Fard act; he thought that they do not pay Zakah, so they have become sinners because of it, not Kafir; therefore, Jihad could not be done against them. However, when he came to know about it, he has said, ‘I realized that what

(Sayyiduna) Siddeeq ·  understood and did is Haq [the truth].’

(Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, part 5, pp. 870)

WHEN DID ZAKAH BECOME FARD?

Zakah became Fard in 2 Hijri before Siyam [fasts]. (Ad-Durr-ul-Mukhtar, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 202)

WHAT IS THE RULING ON DENYING ZAKAH TO BE A FARD ACT?

It is proven from the Holy Quran that Zakah is Fard; the one who denies it is a Kafir.

(Derived from: Al-Fatawa Al-Hindiyyah, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 1, chap. 1, pp. 170)

Zaruriyat-e-Deen refers to those fundamental beliefs and practices of Islam which are known by all the ‘Ulama [Islamic scholars] and common people [close to ‘Ulama]. For example, the Oneness of Allah Nubuwwah of the blessed Ambiya  Salah, Sawm [fast], Hajj, Jannah, Hell, resurrection on the Day of Judgement, accountability, etc. (Kufriyah Kalimat kay baaray mayn Suwal Jawab, pp. 41)

VIRTUES AND BENEFITS OF PAYING ZAKAH

 Means of completion of Iman

Paying Zakah is a means of completion of Iman as the Beloved

Rasool has said: The completion of your Islam is that you pay Zakah of your wealth.

(Attargheeb Wattarheeb, Kitab-us-Sadaqaat, vol. 1, pp. 301, Hadees 12)

At one place, the Holy Nabi has said: He who believes in Allah and His Rasool, it is compulsory for him to pay Zakah of his wealth. (Al-Mu’jam-ul-Kabeer, vol. 12, pp. 324, Hadees 13561)

Mercy of Allah descends

The mercy of Allah J / descends upon the one who pays Zakah. It

is stated in Surah Al-A’raf: And My Mercy encompasses all things, so I shall soon decree favors for those who fear and pay Zakah.

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 9, Surah Al-A’raf, Ayah 156)

Attaining Taqwa [piety] and asceticism

Taqwa is attained by giving Zakah. This is also one sign amongst the signs of Muttaqeen [pious people] mentioned in the Holy

Quran. It is stated:

And spend in Our path from the sustenance We have bestowed (upon them).

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 1, Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayah 3)

Way of success

The Zakah-giving person becomes amongst those who are successful, as, in the Holy Quran, Zakah has also been mentioned amongst the acts of successful people. It is stated: Undoubtedly, the believers reached their goals. Those who humble themselves in their Salah. And who do not incline towards vain talk? And who are active in the payment of Zakah.

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 18, Surah Al-Mu`minoon, Ayah 1-4)

 He who deserves the help of Allah

Allah helps the one who pays Zakah. It is stated:

And undoubtedly, Allah will definitely help the one who helps His religion. Indeed Allah is surely All-Powerful, Ever Dominant. Those people that, if We give them control in the land, would keep Salah established and pay Zakah, and command virtue and forbid evil, and only for Allah is the end of all matters.

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 17, Surah Al-Hajj, Ayah 40, 41)

He who belongs to the category of good people

Paying Zakah is one of the attributes of those people who frequent the ‘houses of Allah J / ’ i.e. Masajid. It is stated:

Only those uphold the Mosques of Allah, who believe in Allah and the Last Day and keep Salah established and pay Zakah and fear none except  Allah; so it is imminent that they will be amongst the people of guidance.

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 10, Surah At-Taubah, Ayah 18)

Sawab of infusing happiness into the hearts of the Islamic brothers
The needs of poor Islamic brothers are fulfilled by paying Zakah and their hearts are infused with happiness.

An excellent expression of Islamic brotherhood

The act of giving Zakah is an excellent expression of Islamic brotherhood as by giving Zakah, a Ghani-Muslim [i.e. one who has Indeed, a Mu`min is like a building for a Mu`min; one strengthens the other. to pay Zakah] encourages his poor Islamic brother to live in the society with honor. Moreover, the heart of the poor Islamic brother remains protected from the attack of the evils like ill-will and jealousy as he knows that he also has the right in the wealth of his Ghani Islamic brother; therefore, he makes Du’a for blessings in the life, wealth and children of his brother. The Beloved Rasool has said, ‘Indeed, a Mu`min is like a building for a Mu`min; one strengthens the other.’

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-us-Salah, vol. 1, pp. 181, Hadees 481)

 Manifestation of the saying of Rasoolullah

Zakah plays a very important role in strengthening the brotherhood between Muslims which enhances collectivity in the Islamic society and because of mutual help, Muslims manifest the following great

saying of their Beloved Rasool The example of mutual

friendship, mercy, and affection of Muslims are like a body; when any part of the body is not well, the entire body joins [i.e. affected by] it in fever and sleeplessness.

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab-ul-Birr, pp. 1396, Hadees 2586)

Wealth becomes pure

Wealth becomes pure by giving Zakah as it is narrated by Sayyiduna Anas Bin Maalik ·      that the Holy Nabi said, ‘Give Zakah of your wealth as it is the one that purifies, it will purify you. (Al-Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal, vol. 4, pp. 274, Hadees 12397)

Getting rid of negative attributes

By giving Zakah, a person gets help in getting rid of the bad attributes like greed and miserliness (if he has them in his heart), and he is blessed with the good attribute of generosity.

  Blessing in wealth

The wealth of the Zakah-giving person does not decrease; in fact, it increases in the world and the Hereafter. Allah has stated: And whatever you spend in the path of Allah, He will give more in return. And He is The Best Provider.

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 22, Surah Saba, Ayah 39)

At another place, it is stated:

The example of those who spend their wealth on the path of Allah is similar to a grain which has sprouted seven ears (of wheat) and each ear contains a hundred grains, and Allah may increase this many a time for whomsoever He desires, and Allah is All-Encompassing,  All-Knowing.  Those who spend their wealth in the path of Allah, and after spending they do not boast of their favor nor taunt; their reward is with their Lord; they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve.

[Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayah 261, 262)

Thus, the Zakah-giving person should give Zakah wholeheartedly,

having the firm belief that Allah will give him something better

in return. The Beloved Rasool does not decrease by giving Sadaqah.’ has said, Wealth does

(Al-Mu’jam-ul-Awsat, vol. 1, pp. 619, Hadees 2270)

Although apparently, the wealth decreases but in reality, it increases; like apparently, it seems that a tree loses its leaves and stems when the dead branches are removed from it but this removal of dead branches is actually the cause of its growth.

The renowned Mufassir, Hakeem-ul-Ummat Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan has stated: The Zakah of a Zakah-giving person keeps on increasing every year; it has been experienced. The farmer, who sows the field with seeds, apparently empties the gunnysacks but in reality, he fills them again along with profit. The gunnysacks in the house get destroyed, being spoiled by mice, weevils, etc.; or it means that keep on spending from the wealth from which Sadaqah is regularly given,········it will keep on increasing; [if you] keep on taking out the water of the well, it will keep on increasing.

(Mirat-ul-Manajih Sharh Mishkat-ul-Masabih, vol. 3, pp. 93)

Protection from evil

The Zakah-giving person becomes protected from evil as the Beloved Rasool has said, ‘He who has paid Zakah of his wealth, indeed, Allah has removed evil from him.’

(Al-Mu’jam-ul-Awsat, vol. 1, pp. 431, Hadees 1579)

Source of protection of wealth

Giving Zakah is a source of protection of wealth as the Beloved Rasool has stated, ‘Bring your wealth into strong fortresses by giving Zakah and treat your sick people with charity.’

(Maraseel Abi Dawood ma’ Sunan Abi Dawood, pp. 8)

Allah will fulfill the needs

Allah will fulfill the needs of the Zakah-giving people as the Beloved Rasool  has said, ‘He who fulfills the need of any person, Allah will fulfill his needs in the religion and the world.’ (Sahih Muslim, Kitab-uz-Zikr wad-Du’a, pp. 1447, Hadees 2699)

At another place, he has said, ‘He who relieves the worldly suffering of any Muslim, Allah J / of the Day of Judgement from him.’

(Sunan-ut-Tirmizi, Kitab-ul-Hudood, vol. 3, pp. 115) will remove the trouble

The poor make Du’a

The poor make Du’a for the Zakah-giving person due to which the mercy of Allah descends and a person receives the help of Allah as the Beloved Rasool   has said, ‘You receive the help of Allah old and their Du’as.’ and sustenance because of the blessing of the

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Jihad, vol. 2, pp. 280, Hadees 2896)

POINTS STATING THE HARM OF NOT GIVING ZAKAH

Dear Islamic brothers! There are many disadvantages of not giving Zakah; some of them are as follows:

1.       A person will not receive those benefits which he would have received if he had paid Zakah.

2.       A person will not be able to get rid of the negative attribute of

miserliness (if he possesses it). The Beloved Rasool ..  I ·

has said: Generosity is a tree in Jannah [Paradise]; he who has become generous has held the branch of that tree. That branch will not leave him until it makes him enter Jannah. And miserliness is a tree in fire; he who has become a miser has held the branch of it. It will not leave him until it makes him enter fire. (Shu’ab-ul-Iman, vol. 7, pp. 435, Hadees 10877)

3.       [Not giving Zakah] is a cause of the destruction of wealth as

the Beloved Rasool ..

I

has said: The wealth that has

got destroyed in the land and sea, it has got destroyed because of not giving Zakah.

(Majma’-uz-Zawaid, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 200, Hadees 4335)

At another place, he ..

I

has said: Zakah will destroy

the wealth in which it will be present.

(Shu’ab-ul-Iman, vol. 3, pp. 273, Hadees 3522)

Explaining the aforementioned Hadees, Sadr-ush-Shari’ah, Badr-ut-Tareeqah, Mufti Muhammad Amjad ‘Ali A’zami

·

,,,·

(who passed away in 1367 Hijri) has stated: Some

Imams have stated the following meaning of this Hadees, ‘If Zakah becomes Wajib on a person but he does not pay it and keeps it included in his wealth, then this Haraam will destroy

that Halal. Imam Ahmad  ( ·       ,,,· ) has stated the following

meaning: If a wealthy person takes Zakah, this Zakah will destroy his wealth as Zakah is for the Fuqara [Shari’ah- declared poor people]. Both the meanings are correct.’

(Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, part 5, pp. 871)

4.       The nation which does not give Zakah may suffer from troubles

collectively. The Beloved Rasool ..

I

·

has said: The

nation which will not give Zakah, Allah J / will make it suffer

from drought. (Al-Mu’jam-ul-Awsat, vol. 3, pp. 275, Hadees 4577)

At  another  place, he ..

I

·

has said: When people

abandon paying Zakah, Allah J / stops the rain. If quadrupeds

were not present on the earth, even a single drop of water would not fall from the sky.

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab-ul-Fitn vol. 4, pp. 367, Hadees 4019)

5.       The person who does not give Zakah has been cursed, as

Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Bin Mas’ood

·

So

has narrated:

Rasoolullah     ..                                                                                                                                                                                                           I

has cursed the one who does not give

Zakah. (Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 4, pp. 8, Hadees 2250)

6.       On the Day of Judgement, this wealth will become a cause of punishment for a person. It is stated in Surah At-Taubah:

The Spiritual Importance of Zakat

And those who pile up gold and silver and do not spend in Allah’s  Way, give them the glad tidings of a painful punishment. The Day when it (gold and silver) will be heated in the Fire of Hell, and their foreheads and their sides and their backs will be branded with it.  ‘Here is what you accumulated for yourselves; so now taste the flavor of your accumulation.’

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 10, At-Taubah, Ayah 34, 35)

The Beloved Rasool ..

I

·

has said: The person whom

Allah J / has given wealth and he does not pay its Zakah, on

the Day of Judgement, that wealth will be converted into the form of a bald snake which will have two spots on its head; that snake will be put around his neck after being made a collar. Then [it] will hold the corners of his lips and say, ‘I am your wealth, I am your treasure’. Thereafter, the Beloved Rasool

..                                                              I      ·    recited the following Ayah:

1

And those who act miserly in respect to that, which Allah has  bestowed upon them by His grace, must never think that  it  is good  for them; rather, it is bad for them. Soon, in which they were miserly,

shall be a collar (in the form of a snake) around their necks on the  Day of Resurrection.

[Kanz-ul-Iman (translation of Quran)] (Part 4, Aal-e-‘Imran, Ayah 180) (Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 1, pp. 474, Hadees 1403)

7.       A person will be held accountable severely as the Beloved

Rasool .

I

·

has said: The Faqeer [i.e. the poor] will

not at all go through the pain of being naked and hungry [i.e. state of extreme poverty] but at the hands of Aghniya [i.e. the

wealthy]. Listen! Allah

J /

will hold such wealthy people

accountable severely and inflict grievous punishment on them.

(Majma’-uz-Zawaid, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 197, Hadees 4324)

8.       A person may suffer the torment of Hell. The Beloved Rasool

..

I

·

saw some people on whose front and back

there were some pieces of cloth like small loincloths, and like quadrupeds, they were wandering around eating the hot stones of Hell, cactus and extremely bitter, burning, foul-smelling

grass. He .. I  ·

enquired from Jibra`eel t         I : ‘Who are

these people?’ Jibra`eel t I ·

humbly replied, ‘Those people

are over here who did not pay Zakah of [their] wealth; and

Allah J /

has not oppressed them; Allah J /

does not oppress

[His] servants.’ (Az-Zawajir, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 1, pp. 372)

At one place, the Beloved Rasool ..

I

·

has said, ‘The

non-payer of Zakah will be in Hell on the Day of Judgement.’

(Majma’-uz-Zawaid, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 201, Hadees 4337)

At another place, he ..

I

·

has said, ‘Three people will

go into Hell before others; one of them is that wealthy person

who does not fulfil the ‘right of Allah J / ’ in [relation to]

his wealth.’ (Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 4, pp. 8, Hadees 2249; summarised)

DETAILS OF PUNISHMENTS

On page 405, volume 1 of his world famous book Faizan-e-Sunnat, Shaykh-e-Tareeqat, Ameer-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat, ‘Allamah Maulana Abu

Bilal Muhammad Ilyas Attar Qaadiri The Spiritual Importance of Zakat

has stated: Dear

Islamic brothers! Remember! As there is great Sawab for paying Zakah, there are also severe punishments for the non-payer of Zakah. Mentioning the details of the punishments stated in Quran and Hadees, A’la Hadrat, Imam of Ahl-us-Sunnah, Maulana Shah

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan ·

,,,·

has stated: In short, on the Day

of Judgement, the gold and silver for which Zakah is not paid will be heated in the fire of Hell, and their foreheads, sides of the body, and backs will be burnt with it. A hot stone of Hell will be kept on

their heads and chests which will ruin the chest and come out from the shoulder; it will be kept on the bone of the shoulder which will ruin the bones  and  come out

from the chest; it will ruin the back and come out from the side of the body; and it will ruin the nape of the neck and come out from the forehead. On the Day of Judgement, the wealth for which Zakah is not given will become an old, dirty, bloodthirsty serpent and slither behind that person [who had not paid Zakah]. He will stop [the serpent] with his hand but it will bite the hand; then it will become a collar around his neck; it will take his face in its mouth and bite it, that, ‘I am your wealth; I am your treasure’.

Then,  it  will  bite  his  entire body. ‘···· I

Razawiyyah referenced, vol. 10, pp. 153)

· I ’ (Fatawa

After frightening the non-payer of Zakah by the punishments of

the Day of Judgement, A’la Hadrat ·

,,,·

has stated while

explaining: O dear! Do you consider the saying of Allah J / and

Rasool .

I

·

a joke or do you consider it easy to face these

severe difficulties (on the Day of Judgement, i.e.) for the duration of fifty thousand years? Just heat a rupee (a small coin) in the worldly fire and then keep it on your body to realise! There is no comparison between this slight heat and that fire of punishment, between just a coin and that wealth accumulated in the entire life, between just a minute over here and that difficult day of several thousand years, between this slight burn and that punishment in

which bones are ruined. May Allah J /

(Ibid, pp. 175)

guide the Muslims.

At another place, A’la Hadrat ·

The Spiritual Importance of Zakat

has stated: In short, the severe

punishments of not paying Zakah are unbearable. The non-payer of Zakah should expect that he will suffer these severe punishments for a thousand years, [and fear] as the mountains will shatter into pieces having faced such sufferings, let alone a weak human being.

Dear Islamic brothers! Always remain associated with the Madani

environment of Dawat-e-Islami. · I you will keep on getting

information regarding the necessary rulings on Zakah and charity and your yearning for acting upon the Islamic teachings will also keep on increasing.

THE DEFINITION OF ZAKAH

That wealth, specified by Shari’ah, is termed as Zakah from which a person discontinues his benefit in every manner and then for the pleasure of Allah J / , it is given into the possession of such Muslim

Faqeer [Shari’ah-declared poor person], who is neither Hashimi1 himself nor is he a slave freed by any Hashimi.

(Durr-e-Mukhtar, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 204, 206; summarised)

WHY ‘ZAKAH’ IS CALLED ZAKAH?

The literal meaning of Zakah is ‘Taharah [purity]’, and ‘increment and blessing’. Since, in reality, Zakah becomes a cause of Taharah, increment and blessing for the remaining wealth [although it may not be apparent], this is why it is called Zakah.

(Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 203; summarised)

TYPES OF ZAKAH

There are basically two types of Zakah:

1.       Zakah of wealth

2.       Zakah of people (i.e. Sadaqa-tul-Fitr)

There are further two types of ‘Zakah of wealth’:

1.       Zakah of gold and silver

2.       Zakah of trade goods and livestock, and the Zakah of cultivated crops and fruits (i.e. ‘Ushr). (Derived from: Bida`i’-us-Sana`i’ fi Tarteeb-ish-Shara`i’, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 2, pp. 75)

1 Bani Hashim refers to the descendants of Sayyiduna ‘Ali, Sayyiduna Ja’far, Sayyiduna ‘Aqeel, Sayyiduna ‘Abbas Bin ‘Abdul Muttalib and Sayyiduna Haaris Bin ‘Abdul Muttalib

The Spiritual Importance of Zakat

So ). The remaining ones who did not support the Beloved Rasool   ..                                    I

, for

example, Abu Lahab; although this Kafir [unbeliever] was also the son of Sayyiduna ‘Abdul Muttalib, but his descendants will not be included in Bani Hashim.

(Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, pp. 931)

ON WHOM IS ZAKAH FARD?

Giving Zakah is Fard upon every such ‘Aaqil [sane] and Baaligh [person who has reached puberty] Muslim who is not a slave and who meets the following conditions:

1.       He owns the Nisab

2.       This Nisab is Naami [growing in nature]

3.       He has Nisab in his possession

4.       The Nisab is exclusive of his Haajat-e-Asliyyah (i.e. basic necessities of life)

5.       The Nisab is exclusive of the money he owes (i.e. he should not owe people such debt that his Nisab will no longer remain if he pays it).

6.       A year passes on this Nisab.

(Summarised from: Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, part 5, pp. 875-884)

DETAILS OF CONDITIONS

The owner of Nisab
Being the owner of Nisab means that a person has 7.5 Tola1 of gold, or 52.5 Tola of silver, or cash equal to its price, or trade goods whose value is equal to its price, or possessions exclusive of Haajat-e-Asliyyah whose value is equal to its price.

(Derived from: Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, part 5, pp. 902-905, 928)

1 A Tola is a traditional ancient Indian and South Asian unit of mass, now standardised as 11.66 grams.

The ruling on giving Zakah before becoming the owner of Nisab
If a person gives Zakah first and then becomes the owner of Nisab, the wealth he has given will not be included in Zakah; in fact, its Zakah will have to be given separately.

(Al-Fatawa Al-Hindiyyah, Kitab-uz-Zakah, chap. 1, vol. 1, pp. 176)

The Zakah on Haraam wealth
Zakah will not be Fard on the person whose total wealth is Haraam [unlawful] because he is not the owner of that wealth. It is stated in Durr-e-Mukhtar: If the total wealth is Haraam, there is no Zakah upon it. (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 259)

A’la Hadrat, Imam of Ahl-us-Sunnah, Maulana Ash-Shah Imam

Ahmad Raza Khan ·

The Spiritual Importance of Zakat

has stated: How can that wealth become

pure by giving the 40th part whose remaining 39 parts are also impure. (Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 19, pp. 656)

It is necessary for such person that he repents and gets rid of the Haraam wealth.

The method of getting rid of Haraam wealth
On page 27 of his booklet ‘Purasrar Bhikari’ [Mysterious Beggar], Shaykh-e-Tareeqat, Ameer-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat, founder of Dawat-e- Islami, ‘Allamah Maulana Abu Bilal Muhammad Ilyas Attar Qaadiri

– · I � : · – I has stated: There are two forms of Haraam wealth:

1.       Haraam wealth obtained through theft, bribery, usurpation and other similar means. The person who obtains it does not become its owner at all. Shari’ah has made it Fard to return

this wealth to its owner; if he has died, it should be given to the heirs; if even they cannot be traced, it should be given to any Faqeer [Shari’ah-declared poor person] as charity without the intention of Sawab.

2.       That Haraam wealth by whose possession, a person acquires its

impure ownership (c:· d· ). It is the wealth acquired through

any ‘Aqd-e-Faasid [imperfect transaction], such as Riba [interest], or the earnings from shaving beard, cutting it to less than a fist length, etc. The same ruling applies to it as well but the difference is that it is not Fard to return it to its owner or his heirs; it can also be given to a Faqeer as charity without the intention of Sawab in the first place. However, it is Afdal

[J I] [better] to return it to the owner or his heirs.

(Derived from: Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 23, pp. 551, 552, etc.)

The meaning of Maal-e-Naami
Maal-e-Naami means the wealth that grows, whether it grows actually or as Hukmi [invisibly]. There are its three forms:

1.       This growth will be due to trade.

2.       This growth will be due to leaving animals in a jungle for breeding.

3.       The wealth will be Naami by nature like gold, silver, etc.

(Al-Fatawa Al-Hindiyyah, Kitab-uz-Zakah, chap. 1, vol. 1, pp. 174)

What is Haajat-e-Asliyyah?
Haajat-e-Asliyyah (i.e. basic necessities of life) refers to all those things which a person generally requires and one faces serious

problems and difficulties in spending life without them, such as the house one lives in, clothes one wears, conveyance, books related to knowledge of Deen, tools related to one’s occupation, etc.

(Al-Hidayah, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 1, pp. 96)

For example, the following are included in Haajat-e-Asliyyah: Telephone or mobile phone for those who need to contact different people; computer for those who write books using a computer or earn a livelihood through it; glasses or lenses for those who have poor eyesight; hearing aid for hearing-impaired people; likewise, bicycle for travelling; motor cycle, car or other vehicles; or other such things which a person needs and he finds difficulty in spending his life without them.

When will a year complete [for Zakah]?
The date and time when a person became the owner of Nisab, as long as the Nisab remains, the year will complete at the same minute

He will become a sinner if he now delays paying the Zakah without any Shar’i reason.

when the same date and same time will come.

(Derived from: Fatawa Razawiyyah referenced, vol. 10, pp. 202)

For example, at 12 pm on 12th of Rabi’-ul-

Awwal i.e. Eid Meelad-un-Nabi ..

I

·The Spiritual Importance of Zakat

,

Zayd received 7.5 Tola of gold, or 52.5 Tola of silver, or the amount of money equal to its value, or trade goods having value equal to its value; then, upon completion of the year at

12 pm on Eid Meelad-un-Nabi ..

I

·

(12th of Rabi’-ul-

Awwal), if he is still the owner of Nisab, paying Zakah of that wealth will become Fard [obligatory] upon him. He will become a sinner if he now delays paying the Zakah without any Shar’i reason.

Will lunar months be taken into account or calendar months?
For completion of the year, lunar months [i.e. months of Islamic calendar] will be taken into account. It is Haraam [prohibited] to take calendar months [i.e. months of the Gregorian calendar] into account. (Derived from: Fatawa Razawiyyah referenced, vol. 10, pp. 157)

The Spiritual Importance of Zakat

Decrease in Nisab during the year
Since the start and end of the year are taken into account for Zakah to become Fard, if the Nisab of Zakah is complete on the completion of the year, the decrease (in Nisab) during the year has no effect; Zakah of the wealth [owned by the person] at that time will be given. (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 3, pp. 278; Al-Fatawa Al-Hindiyyah, Kitab-uz-Zakah, chap. 1, vol. 1, pp. 175)

For example, Bakr became the owner of 7.5 Tola of gold at 12 pm on 1st of Ramadan, so the same moment became the start of the year [of Zakah]. Then, he sold 1 Tola of gold in Shawwal, so the Nisab decreased. When Ramadan-ul-Mubarak was going to arrive next year, he received a gift of 1 Tola of gold from someone in the month of Sha’ban. So, he was again the owner of Nisab at 12 pm on 1st of Ramadan; therefore, he will now have to pay Zakah of that gold because the year has completed.

Increase in Nisab during the year
If a person is the owner of Nisab and he gains some more wealth of the same category during the year, the year of this newly gained wealth will not be different; in fact, completion of the year for this wealth is the same as for the previously owned wealth, even if he has gained this wealth just a minute before the completion of the year. In this regard, it doesn’t matter whether this wealth has been

gained through his previously owned wealth, or through inheritance, or as a gift, or by any other permissible means. If this newly gained wealth belongs to a different category, for example, a person first owned camels and now he got female goats, then a new, different year for it will be considered.

(Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, part 5, ruling no. 43, pp. 884)

Note: In this regard, gold, silver, currency notes and trade goods will all be considered as the same category.

(Derived from: Fatawa Razawiyyah referenced, vol. 10, pp. 210)

For example, Zayd received 11,000 rupees on 11th of Rabi’-us-Saani, and then he received 12,000 rupees on 12th of Rabi’-ul-Awwal in inheritance. He also received 25,000 rupees on 25th of Safar-ul- Muzaffar as a gift or the house rent. In this way, Zayd possessed a total of 48,000 rupees at the end of the year. Now, according to Shari’ah, it is Wajib [compulsory] upon Zayd to pay Zakah of this total amount of money because all the currency notes fall into the same category; therefore, the same year of the previously owned 11,000 rupees will be considered for the amount of money which will be received during the year.

The loss of Nisab during the year
If the Nisab is lost during the year such that none of it remains, the year [of Zakah] that had started will no longer be considered; the day on which he will become the owner of Nisab again will become the new beginning of the year [of Zakah]. For example, a person became the owner of Nisab on 1st of Muharram and in Safar, he lost his entire wealth; then he gained wealth again in Rabi’-un- Noor, so this same month will become the beginning of the year [of Zakah]. (Derived from: Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 10, pp. 89)

Zakah in the state of Kufr
If a person who was previously a Kafir [unbeliever] embraces Islam, it is not Fard upon him to pay Zakah of [his past life he spent in] the state of Kufr because Zakah becomes Fard upon a Muslim, not on a Kafir. (Al-Fatawa Al-Hindiyyah, Kitab-uz-Zakah, vol. 1, pp. 171-175)

Zakah on a Na-Baaligh and insane person
Zakah is not Fard upon a Na-Baaligh1. There are some types of insane people:

1.       If a person remains insane throughout the year, Zakah is not Wajib upon him.

2.       If a person becomes sane in the beginning and end of the year, Zakah is Wajib upon him, even if he remains insane for the rest of the time period.

(Derived from: Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, part 5, pp. 875)

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