The Ahkam of Qurbani (Adha) with Arabic Dua
Mufti Ahmadul Qaderi MisbahiFounder of Darul Uloom Azizia, Dallas, TX
Omair Abdul Jabbar Qaderi, Student of Darul Uloom Azizia
To zabh (slaughter) a specific animal in the days of Nahr is Qurbani.
The Qurbani is the sunnat of Sayeduna Ibrahim (Alaihis Salaam). Muslims were told to do Qurbani, Allah Tabaraka wa Ta’la says:
Hadith 1: Sayeduna Zaid bin Arqam Radi Allahu anhu narrates the Sahabae Kiram asked the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam), “Ya Rasool Allah, what is Qurabani?”
He (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “This is the Sunnat of your father Ibraheem (Alahis Salaam).”
Sahaba said, “Ya Rasool Allah, what sawaab will we get in this?”
He (Swallal Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “A virtue for every hair (on the animal).”
(Ahmad, Ibnu Majah)
Hadith 2: Sayedatuna Aisha (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that Rasool Allah said, “There is no dearer deed of Ibne Adam in the days of Qurbani than flowing the blood (doing Qurbani) and that animal will come with his horns, hairs, and hooves on the day of Qayamt. Thee blood of the Qurbani reaches the stage of acceptance before it reaches the floor. (Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah)
Hadith 3: Sayeduna Abu Hurairah (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Whoever has the means and does not do Qurbani should not come near our place of Eid. (Ibnu Majah)
Hadith 4: Sayeduna Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “The wealth which is spent on Qurbani on the day of Eid, there is no dearer wealth than it. (Tabrani)
Hadith 5: Imam Ahmad (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “The best Qurbani is the one which expensive in price and very fat. (Imam Ahmad)
Hadith 6: Sayeduna Ali (Karam Allahu wajahaul kareem) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Four animals are not proper for Qurbani:
1) One eyed whose one eyedness is evident
2) Ill whose illness is visible
3) Crippled whose crippled ness is visible
4) Thin whose bones don’t have marrow
(Imam Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasaee, Ibnu Majah, Darmi)
Hadith 7: Sayeduna Ali (Karam Allahu wajahaul kareem) narrates that, “Rasool Allahu (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) stopped us from Qurbani of [an animal whose] ears are cut and horns are broken. (Imam Ahmad, Ibnu Majah)
Hadith 8: Sayeduna Abdullah Ibn Masood (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “In Qurbani, a cow is from seven and a camel is from seven.” (Tabrani)
Hadith 9: Sayeduna Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Rasool Allah (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) stopped us from Qurbani in the night.”
Hadith 10: Sayedatuna Ume Salma (Radi Allahu anha) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “When you see the moon of Zul Hijjah and any one of you wants to do Qurbani, he should stop from shaving or cutting his hair and trimming his nails. (Muslim)
Hadith 11: Sayeduna Abdullah Ibn Umar (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “I have been ordered for the Yaumul Adha (The Day of Adha), Allah has made this day an Eid for the ummat.
A man asked, “Ya Rasool Allah, tell me if I have no animal besides a maneeha, so can I do Qurbani with it?
He said, “No, but cut your hair, nails, and mustache and shave the hair below the navel, in this your Qurbani will be fulfilled near Allah.” (Abu Dawood, Nisaee)
That is, whoever does not have the means to do Qurbani will get the reward for Qurbani by doing these things.
Masala 1: With regard to Qurbani, sahibul Nisaab is the person who
A) Owns 52 ½ taula of silver (612.4 grams, 19.75 ounces) or 7 ½ taula of gold
(87.48 grams, 2.82 ounces)
B) Or owns the equivalent of the price of these in business possessions or non-business possessions
C) Or owns equivalent of naqd [cash] or money
And the owned possessions are more than the hajate asalia [explaned in Masala 2].
Masala 2: Hajate asalia, that is, the things which are necessary to for a livelihood. Possessions of these things does not make Qurbani nor Zakat wajib. Like the house to live in, the clothes to wear in the summer and winter, possessions the household, animals or cars for transportation, equipment for work, and books for the people of knowledge.
Masala 3: By books it is meant the Quran, Hadith, Usool of Hadith, Usool of Fiqh, Ilm Kalaam, Akhlaq, and other religious books. Just like this, books of medicine are hajate asalia for a doctor.
Masala 4: Besides this, more than copy of books such as religious books, Nahw, Sarf, Nujoom, Stories, Deewan, and other books are not hajate asalia. If their value reaches nisab then Qurbani is wajib.
Masala 5: Quran Majeed is not hajate asalia for a Hafiz.
Masala 6: Qurbani is not wajib on a musafir (traveler) even if he is wealthy. Although, if he wishes to do Qurbani for Nafl reward then he may do so.
Masala 7: If a woman has jewelry given to her by her father or any other possessions which she owns which reaches the value of nisab then Qurbani is wajib on her also. This is the order of every year.
Masala 8: If a Malikun Nisaab (owner of Nisaab) does Qurbani in his name at one time and if he is a malikun nisaab the next year then it is wajib on him to do Qurbani [for that year]. This is the order of every year. (Tirmizi)
Masala 9: If malikun nisaab person does Qurbani in someone else’s name besides himself and not in his name then he is a grave sinner. So, if one wants to Qurbani for someone else then he should make arrangements for another Qurbani for the other person.
Masala 10: Male or female camel, cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, and ram are all permissible.
Masala 11: A camel must of 5 years, a cow and buffalo of 2 years, a goat, sheep, and ram of 1 year. If the animal is younger than this then qurbani is not permissible, if older than this then it is permissible, in fact it is better. However, if the six-month old offspring of sheep or ram is so big that from looking from afar the sheep or ram looks like a year old then it is permissible.
Masala 12: It is wajib for a sahibun nisaab to slaughter one goat or to slaughter a seventh of camel, cow, and buffalo, it is not permissible to slaughter less than one seventh of the animal.
Masala 13: To slaughter more than a seventh is permissible such as five or six persons slaughtering a cow or buffalo, rather, one person may do qurbani of a whole cow.
Masala 14: The time for Qurbani is from the dusk of dawn on the 10th of Zul Hijjah to the sunset of the 12th of Zul Hijjah, that is, two days and three nights.
Masala 15: The best date for Qurbani is the 10th of Zul Hijjah, then 11th, and then the 12th.
Masala 16: It is not Jaiz (permissible) to do Qurbani before the Salah of Eid in the city.
Masala 17: One may eat the meat of Qurbani himself or give it to a poor or wealthy person or feed them, rather, it is mustahab (better) that the one who has done the Qurbani also eats some from the Qurabni.
Masala 18: It is best for the one who will do Qurbani that to not eat or drink anything from dusk of dawn on the 10th of Zul Hijjah and when the Qurbani is done, he eat from it’s meat.
Masala 19: It is better to divide the meat into three parts in such a way that one for the Fuqaraa and Masakeen (the poor and needy), one part for the friends and relatives, and one part for his own household. If the household persons are many then he my feed all of the meat to his household.
Masala 20: If one did Qurbani on behalf of a deceased person then he may eat the meat himself and feed it to his friends and relatives, that is, if the deceased had not made waseeah (willed) this Qurbani otherwise give all in Sadqa.
Masala 21: If the Qurbani is done because of a mannat (vow) then one can not eat the meat himself nor can he feed to the wealthy rather it is wajib to give it in Sadqa, the vower my be a wealthy or poor person.
Masala 22: It is not permissible to give the meat to a Kafir.
Masala 23: It is not permissible to give the leather or meat or any part of it to the butcher or to the one who did the slaughter (for you) as a payment.
Masala 24: It is not permissible to sell the leather/skin of the Qurbani and bring the money into personal use. However, one may use the leather/skin for personal use.
Masala 25: Many people give the skin to religious Madarsas which is a afdal(best) and the means of getting great reward. At times, it is difficult to send the skin to the madarsas so people sell the skin and send the money to the madarsas which is also no problem.
Masala 26: Four arteries are to be cut whilst slaughtering. If three of the four arteries are cut or most of the each four arteries are cut then the slaughterd is Halal.
Masala 27: If one purposely did not say Arabic text (that is, did not take the name of Allah) then the animal is haraam. If he forgot then the animal is halal
Masala 28: If one handed over the animal to the butcher before completely slaughtering the animal then the butcher must also say Arabic text before proceeding with slaughtering the animal.
Masala 29: To slaughter in such a way that the knife reaches the haraam magz (spinal cord ) or that the head comes off is makrooh (undesirable) but the animal can be eaten, that is, the undesirability is with this action not with the zabeeha (slaughter).
Masala 30: The same order applies for a woman as does for a man, that is, the slaughter of a woman (performed by a woman) is permissible.
Masala 31: The slaughter of a Mushrik or Murtad (performed by them) is dead and haraam.