Aĥmed Raza was born in 1272 AH (1856 CE) into a family of Alims (legal scholars). His father, Mawlānā Naqī Áli Khān, was an alim of his time. His mother named him Amman Miyān. He studied Islamic sciences mainly under the tutelage of his father. He undertook the traditional dars-e nizami course under his father’s supervision and thereafter was largely self-taught. He did not proceed to take a formal course at a dar al-ulum.
At the age of 14, Ahmad Raza, was given the responsibility of writing Fatawa (written answers to Islamic legal problems). It was through this path of life that he communicated to the masses to be steadfast to mainstream Islam – The Ahle-sunnah wal Jama’at. At this time there were many Pirs (Islamic Holy men) throughout northern India and Kashmir, each with their own dedicated group of followers. Most of these known Pirs and Saintly men were very impressed with the teachings (The Ahle-sunnah wa Jama’at) of Imam Ahmad Raza al-Qaadiri and looked at him as their role model and security against the corrupt cults that emerged within Islam.
At 21 he received the blessing of one of the most outstanding Pir’s of the area and sent him out to make Sufi’s from anyone worthy. At 22 years of age while on Hajj with his father, he received many honours from some of the Sufi teachers of his time. Hajj was a turning point in his life. It inspired Imam Raza Khan to make followers throughout India and impart his teachings and knowledge on them. During his lifetime he wrote over 1000 books.
Aĥmed raza studied many sciences and fiqh (jurisprudence) particularly in the Hanafi school. He earned many authorizations to teach — by his own affirmation, the most important one was from the Mufti of Makkah, Shaykh Ábd ar-Raĥmān as-Sirāj ibn Ábdullāh as-Sirāj. This chain of transmission is claimed to reach back to Abu Hanifah.
He is known for his attacks on Wahabis, Deobandis, and other Muslim groups, libertarian religion-reformers like Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan, Abu’l Kalām Āzād, and others of the early 20th century.
Aĥmed Raza Khan took the Qadiri path and was initiated in that Sufi order by the Cardinal Pole of Noble Saints, Sayyid Khatimul-Akaabir Sha Ale-Rasul Ahmadi al-Husaini al-Qaadiri Barkaati of Mārahra (a town in northern India). He dedicated many tracts to the love of Muhammad, as is evident in his writings and endeavors.
In 1904 he founded a school, the Madrasa Manzar al-Islam. The position of chief administrator of this school was later to become a hereditary one within the Riza family for the next four generations. Raza died in 1340 AH (1921 CE), at the age of 65.
Ahmad Raza came into conflict with the Scholars of the Deobandi movement. Until now, Sunni Muslims who abide by the teaching of Imam Ahmad Raza disagree with the deobandi school of thought. In Pakistan the first purely religious political alliance was between Jamiat-e-Ulma-e-Islam (Deobandi) and Jamiat-e-Ulma-e-Pakistan (Barelwi). Later on, other schools of thought joined to form Muttahida Majlis Amal (MMA). But one should keep in mind that these alliances are for political reasons — as for as the basics of creed and dogmas are concern the gulf is still wide. To Barelwi Muslims, there is only one solution of the problem of Islamic Unity: Deobandi, Wahabis, Shiites, Ismailis and all the members of the non-Barelwi sects of innovation and misguidance must reject what the Barewlwis consider to be heretical creed and dogmas and accept the Barelwi-Sunni belief as the only one which is in agreement with Quran, Sunnah and the Consensus of their older generations.
He had many ijazahs (certificate of authority, authorization) in Hanafi fiqh, and by his own affirmation, the most important one is from the Muftī of Makkah, Shaykh abd ar-Rahmān as-Siraj ibn Abdullāh as-Siraj (The Master of the Kaba or place of hajj). This chain of transmission reaches Imām Abū Hanifah in twenty seven links and in further four to Muhammad.
He took the Qadiri path and was initiated in that Sufi order by Allama Sayyid Shah Aale Rasool Hussaini Qadri Barkati Al-Hanafi ( Student of Allama Abdul Aziz Mohaddith e Dehalwi Al-Hanafi ) of Mārahra (a town in northern India) when he turned 21 years of age. He was a great lover of Muhammad (salallaho alehi wasallam) as is evident in his writings and endeavors. He was also a great poet who has to his name many and verses in Arabic, Persian and Urdu. The anthology of his Urdu and Persian verse is presented in a slim volume with two parts and named: ‘Hadayiq e Bakh’shish’ meaning ‘Gardens of Salvation’.
Ahmed Raza was the author of nearly 1,000 books and monographs of varying lengths, as well as poetry, in Arabic, Persian and Urdu. Amongst the most well-known are the following:
- Kanzul Iman Fi Tarjamatu’l Qu’ran (The Treasure of Faith: A translation of the Quran) – This is his Urdu translation of the Koran. It combines fluency of language with Koranic exegesis and is an explanatory translation, as opposed to a literal one.
- ‘Ĥadāyiq e Bakh’shish (Gardens of Salvation) – This is his slim two-volume anthology of Urdu and Persian poetry, eulogizing the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and give him peace).
- Al- Átāyā an-Nabawiyyah fi’l Fatāwā ar-RiĎawiyyah (also known as Fatāwa ar-RiDawiyyah or Fatāwā Razwiyah) – His magnum opus, this is a collection of books, monographs and edicts on all aspects of Hanafī fiqh. The latest edition runs into 24 large volumes.
- Al-Dawlatul Makkiyah (The Meccan Treasure) – This is amongst his masterpieces and was written in a few days. It discusses, in great detail, the Prophet’s Knowledge of the Unseen ( ‘ilm al ghayb), one of the contentious issues between Ahlus Sunnah and their opponents, notably the literalist Wahabi school.
- Husamul Haramain
He also made several poems about Muhammad,S.A.W such as Lam Yati Nadhiruka Fi Nadharin (in Arabic Urdu, Hindi,and in Persian) and Zamin-o-Zaman which can be found in Ĥadāyiq e Bakh’shish.
It is found that Ahmad Raza had proficiency in more than fifty branches of knowledge. Arab scholars like Shaykh Ismail bin Khalil & Shaykh Musa Ali Shami while commenting on his reputation and his knowledge, Dr. Jamil Jalibi, Vice Chancellor, Karachi University (Pakistan) said:
“Mawlana Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi was an Jurist, scholar, Naa’tia poet, an observer of Islam. His crowning scholarship can be imagined by the fact that he had knowledge of various sciences and humanities. He left behind more than a hundred booklets.”
Once, Sir Zia al-Din, a famous mathematician, was in a predicament with regards to part of his research in a mathematical field which meant he had to go to Berlin (Germany) to seek a solution to an intricate problem. It so happened that a certain Mawlana from the famous Aligarh University advised Sir Zia al-Din to visit Ahmad Raza to seek a solution for his mathematical problem. But, Sir Zia al-Din, not sounding very confident said, “What will an ordinary Mawlana like Mawlana Ahmed Raza be able to solve? He hasn’t even gone out of his city to gain knowledge, so it is obvious that his knowledge is very limited.” Nevertherless, after some convincing, he agreed to visit Bareily.
When he arrived in Bareily , he immediately went to Ahmad Raza. Presenting the intricate mathematical problem to Ahmad Raza he said, “I am now going to Germany. I will come back for the answer, that is, if you do manage to solve it.” As he was speaking, Ahmad Raza was busy writing and listening to him at the same time. As Sir Zia al-Din was about to leave, he handed him a sheet of paper. When Sir Zia al-Din read what was written on this paper, he realised that it contained the solution to his mathematical problem that had him so confused. Sir Zia’ al-Din, was later recorded to have said the following about Ahmad Raza:
“He was an un-assuming man of pleasant manners and morals, had deep insight in mathematics, although he was not formerly educated by a teacher. It was an inner gifted inherent knowledge. My query pertained to a theory of knotting problems of mathematics, but his manner and explanation was spontaneous as if he had already carried out a research in it. Now, there is nobody so well-versed in India. Such a scholar, I think, there is none. Allah has bestowed upon him such a knowledge, that is amazing. His insight in the fields of mathematics, euclid, algebra and timings is astonishing. A mathematical problem that I could not solve despite my best of efforts, this learned man explained in a few moments.”
He was so much effected by Ahmad Raza that he became a true Muslim with a beard on his face.
From the period of the Crimean War to 1878, Britain encouraged a pro-Turkish policy for Muslim India. Aĥmed Riđā’s stance followed this line. In one of his works, Tahzib Al-Akhlaq, he is on record as praising the reforms in the Ottoman Dominions.
He rejected the spiritual jurisdiction of the Ottoman Khilafah based on the accepted position that the caliph must be from Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet to which the Ottomans did not belong. He held the view that the real Khilafah had ended with the first four caliphs (Khulafa al-Rashidun) and protested the ban imposed by Sultan Abd Al-Hamid II against discussions on this subject, which was entirely in accordance with traditional thought. Aĥmed Riđā rejected the jihad against the British occupation of India since “Jihad is not obligatory for us, the Muslims of India, on the basis of the Qur’an. He who holds that it is obligatory is an opponent to the Muslims and intends to harm them!” He also said in his book: Dawam al-Aish (p. 46): “Jihad and fighting are not binding on the Muslims of India!” Personally, it appears he did not accept the jurisdiction of the British; an indication of this was his habit of affixing postage stamps with the head of the Queen upside down and his refusal to attend British court hearings, which may show his personal confusion on the matter.
Imam Aĥmed Razaā’s spiritual and religious involvements seemingly encompassed his life. However, he was also a self-taught scientist in many fields and a mathematician. He acted upon his sincere belief of the Quran and Hadith mentioning that Islam and science are intertwined within each other. He wrote several treatises on several scientific fields. .
During the period of the Indian Khilafat Movement, Gandhi was advised that he should meet with Aĥmed Riđā. When he was told that the Gandhi wished to meet and speak to him, Aĥmed Riđā said, “What would he speak about? Religion or worldly affairs? If it is worldly affairs, what can I partake in, for I have abstained from the world and have no interest in it.” (Al Mizaan, p. 335)
He had made a statement that his followers should strictly abide to his doctrines and ideologies His statements have been collated by a Barelvi by the name of Hasnain Rida in a book entitled: Wasaya Sharif. Rida Khan said to his followers as recorded in the Wasaya (p. 10): “Hold fast to my faith and doctrine which is apparent from my works. Hold fast to it and remain honest to it, for it is the most significant duty among the duties.” He also said: “I do not know how long I shall live among you. You are the naive sheep of Raza Ahmed and the wolves have encompassed you from all sides. They want to lead you astray and create schism and dissent among you. They wish to carry you to the hell-fire. So keep away from them, especially the Deobandi’s School” (Al-Bastawi in his al-Bareilawi, p. 105).
No tribute to Imam Ahmed Raza could be complete without understanding the sustained restlessness of the Imam in providing true leadership throughout his life, when he was faced with leading the Muslims in a fragile moment in the history of Islam in the Indo-Pak sub-continent. The continued emergence of sects like the Qadianis, Wahabis, and other sects which sought to prove that Almighty Allah indulges in falseness – Ma’aazallah, Summa Ma’aazallah – proved a genuine threat when these sects began imitating unsuspecting but uneducated Muslims into their fold. It was against such a background that Imam Ahmed Raza (alaihir rahmah) rose forth to defend the true Islamic principles as a scholarly giant, and in doing so, also succeeded in securing a place in the Urdu language as a literary giant in Na’athia Kalam.
More than just issuing Fatawas, Imam Ahmed Raza prepared researched treatises on an academic level on these issues which fast saw the decline of most of the anti-Islamic practices. To this day the Muslim masses benefit from his Fatawa-e-Razvia, Ahkam-e-Shariat, Irfaan-e-Shariat, Al Malfooz, Fatawa-e-Africa, etc. which deal with deal with almost every masaa’il of our day-to-day life.
Imam Ahmed Raza was very sensitive to the pains and afflictions that befell the Muslim Ummah. In this regard he used every scholarly resource at his disposal to assist the Muslims regain their honour in the face of all anti-Islamic forces.
In his Hada’iq-e-Bakshish he wrote an entire nazm “Soona Jungle” warning the Muslims about safeguarding their Imaan. This Nazm became very popular with the masses as its clear message was arranged in a style that appealed to the masses.
Great breakthrough at the Al Azhar University: The famous Al Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt has granted permission for a graduate to research on the topic of Alahazrat, Imam Ahmed Raza (alaihir rahmah) and his services for Hanafi Fiqah. This research is towards the M.Phil. Degree and Mustaq Ahmed Shah of Pakistan is doing this research.
Imam Ahmed Raza and Medicine (Tibb): Hakeem Mohammed Saeed Dehlwi, the founder of Madinatul Hikmat University, Karachi (Research Centre for Unani Medicine) and owner of Hamdard Dawa Khana did research and compiled Alahazrat’s (alaihir rahmah) theory about medicine. The book is titled, “Imam Ahmed Raza aur Fann Tibb,” and is printed and published in Pakistan.
Imam Ahmed Raza Foundation: The IARF was recently established in the Kerala State India to research and propagate the teachings of Imam Ahmed Raza (alaihir rahmah).
New Translations of Imam Ahmed Raza published: The “Islamic Times” of the UK has recently published two articles by Alahazrat (alaihir rahmah). These are: (1) “A Commentary upon Paper Currency Notes,” which was researched and translated by Dr. Muhammad A. Junejo and (2) “Imam Ahmed Raza and Topology,” by Dr. Abdul Naim Azizi of Jasoli, Bareilly Shareef.
Historic Alahazrat Mazaar stamp printed by Government of India: The Postal Services Department of the Indian government have acknowledged the Islamic and Academic services of the great Mujaddid (Reviver) of Islam, Alahazrat, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Al-Qaderi (alaihir rahmah). They have printed a new Indian stamp portraying the Mazaar Shareef of Alahazrat (alaihir rahmah) in full colour. The words “Alahazrat Barelvi” have been printed along the side of the stamp in English and Hindi. This stamp is currently being sold at all Post Offices in India. This is India’s way of saluting a great genius and Islamic scholar of his time, A’la Hazrat (alaihir rahmah).
Research work on Imam Ahmed Raza: Hazrat Maulana Ahmed Raza Khan, an eminent jurist, also known as Alahazrat (alaihir rahmah) was born at Bareilly, India in 1856. He completed the Holy Quran at the age of four and became astonishingly well-versed in more than fifty branches of learning, pertaining to Ancient Sciences, Current Sciences and Oriental Learnings and left contributions in all these academic disciplines.
At Makkah Mu’azzama and Madina Munawwara, he was visited by many scholars who received diplomas and fatawas from him. Due to his distinction in this field, the Islamic world acknowledged him as a great Jurist. The renowned poet of the East, Dr. Allama Iqbal, remarked, “Such a genius and intelligent Jurist did not emerge.” Despite being well-versed in scores of branches of knowledge, he restricted his interest to the following branches:
1. To support and defend the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). 2. To uproot the innovations prevalent in the Muslim society. 3. To issue fatawa according to the Hanafi School of Jurisprudence.
In short, he was a Jurist, Theologian and a Reformer whose life revolved around the motto “Love the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).” In recognition of this eminent personalities life, the following researches are being carried out by these individuals, amongst others: 1. Dr. Usha Sanyal, Ph. D Colombo University, Ahmed Raza and the Ahle-Sunnat Wa Jamaat Movement (1921-1947) Oxford University, Press, New Delhi. 2. Dr. Ghulaam Qureshi Dastageer, who translated A’la Hazrat’s Qalaam in English which was published in the “Islamic Times” UK 3. Muhammed Muazzam Ali who wrote “Fundamental Faith of Islam -Treaties of Ahmed Raza” 4. Prof. J.M. Baljo of Leiden University, Holland, who presented and delivered research material on A’la Hazrat at an international forum. 5 . British scholar, Dr Muhammad Haroon, who has compiled a thesis on “The World Importance of Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Bareilly.”
Alahazrat, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan, thought by some to be the Muslim Revivalist (Mujaddid) of the previous Islamic Century, wrote and compiled numerous commentaries and treatises on various topics. As an author, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Al-Qaderi has left to his credit more than a thousand books on fifty different subjects ranging from Tafseer, Logic, Grammar, Literature, Islamic Jurisprudence, Education, Sociology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Physics, History, Science of History, Engineering, Biographies, Philosophy, Mysticism to Persian, Arabic, Urdu and Hindi Literature. His poetry includes such works as “Mustapha Jaan-e-Rahmat.”
At present, many Islamic and Western universities, colleges and Darul Uloom’s, throughout the world, are researching nd translating the works of this great Muslim scholar. Some of the countries in which research is being carried out are: India, Pakistan, United States of America, England, Holland, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and South Africa. Perhaps one of his more famous scientific theories lies in his proof that the sun and other bodies revolve around the earth!
Universities conducting Research on Alahazrat workd: More than twenty five Universities throughout the world are actively researching the works of the great Islamic Scholar and Saint, Alahazrat.
Kanzul Iman the internationally renowned Urdu translation of the Holy Quran by Alahazrat, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Al-Qaderi (alaihir rahmah) has been translated into the English language by many Islamic scholars.
This momentous task was first undertaken by Professor Fatimi, a highly acclaimed academic of the University of Kuwait. He had it published in Karachi, Pakistan. The second translation was undertaken by Professor Shah Fareedul Haq of Pakistan and was published in India and Pakistan. The commentary notes on “Kanzul Imaan” by Sadrul Faadhil, Maulana Na’eemuddeen Muradabadi (rahmatullah alaihi) has been translated into the English language by Dr. Professor Majeedullah of Lahore, Pakistan.
- Kanzul Iman in Sindhi: The Urdu translation of the Quran, “Kanzul Imaan” by Alahazrat, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan (alaihir rahmah) has been translated into the Sindhi language by Mufti Muhammad Raheem Sikandari.
- KANZUL IMAN -The HOLY QURAN IN CREOLE LANGUAGE: In Mauritius A’la Hazrat’s Kanzul Iman has been translated into the Creole language, thanks to the combined effort of Maulana Mansoor and Maulana Najeeb of Mauritius. This historic translation of the Holy Quran was first published on 17-01-96 under the guidance and patronage of the Khatib of the Jaame Masjid Mauritius, Hazrat Allama Shameem Ashraf Azhari. Many Ulema and politicians also partook in this great service. The translation was greatly welcomed and accepted by all.
- NEW RESEARCH MATERIAL ON A’LA HAZRAT (alaihir rahmah): Three new research thesis on A’la Hazrat (alaihir rahmah) by Professor Dr. Muhammad Mas’ood Ahmad was published in Pakistan. Two of his books, viz. “Fundamental Faith of Islam” and “Imam Ahmad Raza – The Reformer of the Muslim World”, are in English and one in Arabic. Whilst numerous books and research on A’la Hazrat (alaihir rahmah) has been published in Urdu, only a limited material is available in English and Arabic. This move is, therefore, greatly encouraged. (Ashrafia Monthly Mubarakpur)
- PH.D ON A’LA HADRAT: Twenty-one (21) Scholars in Pakistan have completed their research works on A’la Hadrat (alaihir rahmah) and have received their Doctorate. Amongst them were:
1. Professor Dr Hafiz Abdul Baari Siddiqi 2. Professor Dr Majeedullah Qaaderi, who is also doing an indepth research on the works of A’la Hadrat (alaihir rahmah).
- FATAWA RADAWIYYAH: Alhamdulillah, eleven volumes of A’la Hazrat’s (alaihir rahmah) scholarly work “Fatawa Radawiyyah” has now been published by Darul Uloom Amjadiya under the expert supervision of Qari Raza-ul-Mustapha Azmi. This famous work, which contains hundreds of questions and answers pertaining to almost every aspect of Islamic life, is in the Urdu language.
- TV. DOCUMENTARY ON A’LA HAZRAT: An investigative and informative documentary on the life and services of A’la Hazrat (alaihir rahmah) was broadcast by the National Pakistan Television. It was featured as a special programme of “Television Encyclopedia.” This programme was unanimously applauded and due to popular public demand it was presented once again on the occasion of Urs-e-Razvi. Consequently, a learned and well-known scholar of “Razviat,” Sayyed Aarif Ali Razvi, of Kalyaan Bombay has exhorted the Doordarshan, India’s state television channel, to present an indepth documentary on the life of Imam Ahmed Raza (alaihir rahmah).
- A’LA HAZRAT’S HISTORY INCLUDED IN ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Islamic book publications section of the Punjab University is to launch a new Urdu Encyclopedia of Islam. In the 10th volume, pages 278 to 287, incorporates a brief history of the life and works of A’la Hazrat, Imam-e-Ahle Sunnat, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan (alaihir rahmah). This brief history was prepared by Professor Dr Muhammad Ma’sud Ahmed, M.A. Phd., on the request of Dr. Sayed Abdullah.
RESEARCH ON A’LA HAZRAT’S FAUZ-E-MOBEEN: Scientists from the Allama Iqbal Open University in Islamabad have taken a keen interest in researching A’la Hazrat’s (alaihir rahmah) “Fauz-e-Mobeen” which deals with the movement of the sun and planets around the earth. At present, research is about to commence on the subject.
CHRISTIAN CONVERTS TO ISLAM AFTER READING “KANZUL IMAAN”: In 1974, Dr. Hannif Faatimi of London University brought the Professor of Kuwait an English translation of “Kanzul Imaan” (A’la Hazrat’s translation of the Holy Quran) for printing. Prof. Faatimi at that time had met a Christian scholar who had revealed that he was interested in reading more about Islam. Prof. Faatimi was two-minded about giving him an English copy of Kanzul Imaan. Eventually, he gave him a copy to read. The Christian scholar, after reading this translation, accepted Islam.
BOOKS AVAILABLE FROM OVERSEAS:
- IDARA-E-MAS’UDIA – PAKISTAN: The Novelties (English Version of the Urdu treatise “Na’iy Na’iy Batain”) by Dr. Muhammad Mas’ud Ahmed M.A., Ph.D., Gold MedalistRespect and Reverence (English Version of the Urdu treatise “Ta’zim-o-Tawqir”) by Dr. Muhammad Mas’ud AhmedEids of Eids (Festivity above all Festivities) by Dr. Muhammad Mas’ud AhmedSpiritual Significance of Affinity (English Version of the Urdu treatise “Nisbaton Ki Baharain”) by Dr. Muhammad Ma’sud AhmedThe Knowledge of the Unseen (English Version of the Urdu Treatise “I’lm-i-Ghayb”) by Dr. Muhammad Mas’ud Ahmed. Available from: Idara-e-Mas’udia, 6/2, 5-E Nazimabad, Karachi – 74600, Sindh, Pakistan
- SUNNI BOOKS AVAILABLE FROM RAZA ACADEMY – UNITED KINGDOM
Why I accepted Islam by Dr. Muhammad Haroon Islam and Punishment by Dr. Muhammad Haroon Eid Milad an Nabi by Dr. Muhammad Haroon Islam and the Limits of Science by Dr. Muhammad Haroon Importance of Truth of Holy Quran by Dr. Muhammad Haroon The World Importance of Imam Ahmed Raza by Dr. Muhammad Haroon Imam Ahmed Raza and British Converts to Islam by Dr. Muhammad Haroon The Prophet of Mankind by Prof. G.D. Qureshi Islamic Concept of Knowledge by Imam Ahmed Raza Parents Obligations to Children by Imam Ahmed Raza Sunni Islam and the Rule of Allah Alone by Dr. Muhammad Haroon The Roots of Islamic Fundamentalism by Dr. Muhammad Rizvi Sufism in Perspective by Imam Ahmed Raza The World Importance of Ghaus-al-Azam Hazrat Sheikh Muhyiddin Abdul Qadir Jilan (alaihir rahmah) by Dr. Muhammad Haroon.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, claimed to be a “prophet” in what he claimed to be an allegorical sense. These claims proved to be extremely controversial among Muslims and he was branded as a heretic and apostate by many religious scholars of the time, including Ahmed Rida. To prove his point, when Ahmed Rida visited Mecca and Madina for pilgrimage in 1905, he prepared a draft document entitled “AlMotamad AlMustanad” (The Reliable Proofs) for presentation to the eminent scholars of Mecca and Madina. Ahmed Rida collected opinions of the Ulama of Hejaz and compiled them in a compendium written in Arabic language with the title, Husam al Harmain (The Sword of two sanctuaries), a work containing the thirty-three Ulamas’ thirty -four verdicts (20 Meccan and 13 Medinese Ulama). The overall import of this work was that Ghulam Ahmad’s beliefs were blasphemous and tantamount to apostasy..
Prominent Muslim alims from the Indian sub-continent who were amongst the students of Aĥmed Riđā are as follows:
- Muhammad Hamid Raza Khan Noori Barkaati
- Mustapha Raza Qadri Noori Barkaati (teacher of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Alawi al-Maliki)
- Abdus Salaam Jabalpuri ( Eidul Islam )
- Sayyid Shah Na’eemuddeen Muraadabadi ( Sadrul Afazil ) (teacher of Shaykh Muhammad Karam Shah al-Azhari)
- Sayyid Zafar’uddeen Bihaari
- Abdul Aleem Siddique
- Mufti Amjad Ali
- Ziyauddin Ahmad al-Qadiri al-Madani (teacher of Shaykh Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki and Hazrat Abdul Wahab Siddiqi)
- Burhaanul Haq Jabalpuri ( Burhan e Millat )
- Mawlana Mukhtar Ahmad Siddiqi Meerati
- Muhammad Abd al-Hayy
- Ahmad Khalil
- Ahmad Khudravi
- Muhammad bin Abi Bakr
- Muhammad Sa’id
- Mawlana Sayyid Ahmad Ashraf Ashrafi
- Mawlana Syed shah Sulayman Ashraf Bihari
- Hashmat Ali Khan ( Sher Besha’e )
- Baraka, A – A Saviour in a Dark World (Article) The Islamic Times, March 2003 Stockport, UK
Haroon, M The World of Importance of Imam Ahmad Raza Kazi Publications, Lahore 1974